Large List of GNU/Linux Commands by Categories

A complete list of GNU/Linux commands.

Large List of GNU/Linux Commands by Categories

A complete list of GNU/Linux commands.

Control and Access Commands

  • exit ➜ End session, ie shell (more help typing man sh or man csh )
  • logout ➜ Logout, ie log off the current session, but only in C shell and bash shell
  • passwd ➜ Change our user password
  • rlogin ➜ Log in securely to another Unix/Linux
  • ssh segura Secure session, comes from secure shell , and allows us to login to a server via ssh protocol
  • slogin ➜ Safe Version of rlogin
  • yppasswd ➜ Change our user password on yellow pages

Communications Commands

  • mail ➜ Send and receive emails
  • mesg ➜ Allow or deny terminal messages and talk requests
  • pine ➜ Another way to send and receive emails, a quick and convenient tool
  • talk ➜ Talk to other users who are currently logged in
  • write ➜ Write to other users who are currently logged in

Help and Documentation Commands

  • apropos ➜ Finds commands by keyword search
  • find ➜ Find files, such as find . -name *.txt -printfind . -name *.txt -print , for searching text files among current directory files
  • info ➜ Launches the information explorer
  • man muito Very complete manual, looks for information about all the commands we need to know, such as man find
  • whatis ➜ Describes what a given command is
  • whereis ➜ Find the man page , source code, or binary files for a given program.

Text Editing Commands

  • emacs screen-oriented text editor
  • picoscreen-oriented text editor, also called nano
  • sedstream-oriented text editor
  • vifull-screen text editor
  • vim ➜ Improved full-screen text editor

File and Directory Management Commands

  • cd ➜ Change current directory, such as cd diretoria , cd .. , cd /
  • chmod ➜ Change protection of a file or directory, such as chmod 777 , similar to MS-DOS attrib
  • chown ➜ Change the owner or group of a file or directory comes from change owner
  • chgrp ➜ Change the group of a file or directory
  • cmp ➜ Compare two files
  • comm ➜ Select or reject lines common to two selected files
  • cp ➜ Copy files such as MS-DOS copy
  • crypt ➜ Encrypt or Decrypt files ( CCWF only)
  • diff ➜ Compare the contents of two ASCII files.
  • file ➜ Determines the file type
  • grep ➜ Searches for a file by default, being a very useful and used filter, for example a cat a.txt | grep hellocat a.txt | grep hello will show us only the lines of the a.txt file that contain the word “hello”
  • gzip ➜ Compress or expand files
  • lnlink to a file
  • ls ➜ List the contents of a directory, similar to the dir command in MS-DOS
  • lsof ➜ Lists open files, comes from list open files
  • mkdir ➜ Create a board, come from make diretory”
  • mv ➜ Move or rename files or directories
  • pwd ➜ Show us the full path of the board we are in at any given time, ie pathname
  • quota ➜ Show us disk usage and limits
  • rm ➜ Delete files, come from remove , and similar to del command in MS-DOS , be careful with rm * command as it deletes everything without default confirmation
  • rmdir ➜ Delete directories, come from remove diretory
  • stat ➜ Shows the state of a file, useful for knowing for example the time and date of last access to it
  • sync fl flush file system buffers , synchronize data on disk with memory, ie write all data in memory buffers to disk
  • sort ➜ Sort, merge or compare text and can be used to extract information from text files or even to sort data from other commands such as listing files sorted by name
  • tar ➜ Create or extract files, often used as a file backup or compression program
  • tee ➜ Copy input to standard output and other files
  • tr ➜ Translate characters
  • umask ➜ Changes default file protections
  • uncompress ➜ Restore a compressed file
  • uniq ➜ Report or delete repeated lines in a file
  • wc ➜ Count lines, words and even characters in a file

Viewing or Printing Files

  • cat ➜ Shows the contents of a file, such as the MD-DOS type command, and is also cat a.txt b.txt > c.txt” para juntar o arquivo a.txt e b.txt num único de nome c.txt used to concatenate files, such as making cat a.txt b.txt > c.txt” for merge file a.txt e b.txt in a only name c.txtcat a.txt b.txt > c.txt” for merge file a.txt and b.txt in a only name c.txt
  • fold ➜ Shortens, ie fold long lines to fit output device
  • head ➜ Shows the first lines of a file, such as with head -10 a.txt , or used as a filter to show only the first x results of another command.
  • lpq ➜ Examine printer spooling queue
  • lpr ➜ Print a file
  • lprm ➜ Remove jobs from printer spooling queue
  • more ➜ Shows the contents of a file, but only one screen at a time, or even output from other commands, such as ls | morels | more
  • less ➜ Works like more , but with fewer features , fewer features and potential uses.
  • page ➜ Works similar to more command, but displays screens reversed to more command
  • pr ➜ Pages a file for later printing
  • tail ➜ works in reverse of the head command, shows us the last lines of a file or even the output of another command when used as a filter
  • zcat ➜ Show us a compressed file
  • xv ➜ Used to display, print or even manipulate images
  • gv ➜ Display ps and pdf files
  • xpdf ➜ Display pdf files, use gv

File Transfer Commands

  • ftp ➜ Comes from file transfer protocol , and allows us, using the ftp file transfer protocol , to transfer files between multiple hosts on a network, such as uploading to an ftp server to upload or pull files

  • rsync ➜ Quickly and flexibly synchronizes data between two computers
  • scprcp secure version

News or Network Commands

  • netstat ➜ Shows network status
  • rsh ➜ Run a shell on other UNIX systems
  • sshrsh secure version
  • nmap_port-scan ➜ to view open ports on a given host
  • ifconfig ➜ View our machine ips , among other ips related functions
  • pingping a particular host , ie send icmp packets to a given host and measure response times, among other things

Process Control Commands

  • kill ➜ Kills a process, such as kill -kill 100 or kill -9 100 or kill -9 %1
  • bg ➜ Put a suspended process in the background
  • fg ➜ Unlike bg , fg brings back a process to the foreground
  • jobs ➜ Allows us to view running jobs , when we run a background application, we can see this job with this command, and end it with a kill -9 %1 command, if it’s job number 1, for example
  • top ➜ List the processes that most cpu use, useful for checking which processes are causing excessive memory usage, and how much percentage of cpu each uses at any given time.
  • ^y ➜ Suspend process on next input request
  • ^z ➜ Suspend current process

State Information Commands

  • clock ➜ Sets the processor time
  • date ➜ Displays the date and time
  • df ➜ Displays a summary of free disk space
  • du ➜ Displays a summary of disk space usage
  • env ➜ Display environment variables
  • finger ➜ Search user information
  • history ➜ Lists the last commands used, very useful to remember also which commands were used to do a certain action in the past or what was done at a certain time.
  • last ➜ Indicates last user login
  • lpq ➜ Examine the spool queue
  • manpath ➜ Shows the search path for man command pages
  • printenv Print environment variables
  • ps ➜ List the list of running processes, useful to know the pid of a process to send it below with the kill command, among other things
  • pwd ➜ Show us the full path of the board we are in at any given time, ie pathname
  • set ➜ Set session variables, ie shell , C shell , bash or ksh
  • spend ➜ List ACITS UNIX costs to date
  • time ➜ Measure program execution time
  • uptime ➜ Tell us how long the system has been up, when it was turned on and its uptime
  • w ➜ Show us who is on the system or what command each job is running
  • who ➜ Show us who is logged in
  • whois ➜ Internet domain directory service, lets us know information about certain domains on the Internet, when a domain was registered, when it expires, etc.
  • whoami ➜ Tell us who owns the shell

Word Processing Commands

  • abiwordOpen Source Word Processor
  • addbib ➜ Create or modify bibliographic databases
  • col ➜ Reverts the filter to line feeds
  • diction ➜ Identify sentences with words
  • diffmk ➜ Mark differences between files
  • dvips ➜ Convert TeX DVI files to PostScript files
  • explain ➜ Explains phrases found by diction program
  • grap pic graphics processor used for elementary data analysis tasks
  • hyphen ➜ Find words with hyphens
  • ispell ➜ Check spelling interactively
  • latex ➜ Formats text in LaTeX , which is based on TeX
  • pdfelatex ➜ For LaTeX documents in pdf format
  • latex2html ➜ Convert LaTeX to html
  • lookbib ➜ Find bibliographic references
  • macref ➜ Create a cross-reference listing nroff/troff macro files
  • ndx ➜ Create an index page for a document.
  • neqn ➜ Formats math with nroff
  • nroff ➜ Formats text for simple display.
  • pic ➜ Produces simple images for troff input
  • psdit ➜ Filters output troff for Apple LaserWriter
  • ptx ➜ Create permuted indexing but not CCWF
  • refer ➜ Insert references from bibliographic databases
  • roffbib run off a bibliographic database
  • sortbib ➜ Sort a bibliographic database
  • spell ➜ Spelling errors
  • style ➜ Analyzes the surface characteristics of a document
  • tbl ➜ Format tables for nroff/troff
  • tex ➜ Formats text
  • tpic ➜ Convert pic source files into TeX commands
  • wget ➜ Allows us to download full web pages with all files easily and non-interactively, without requiring user presence, respecting the robots.txt file.


  • html2pshtml to ps converter
  • latex2html LaTeX to html Converter
  • lynx ➜ Text mode based web browser, ie a web browser that allows us to open all kinds of pages by viewing only the text and links , not seeing the images, and therefore quite fast, but it requires practice to be handled
  • netscapeNetscape web Browser
  • sitecopy ➜ Application that allows us to easily and remotely maintain web sites
  • weblint html syntax and style weblint

Thanks for reading!

commands linux gnu